Holidays and observances
- National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day (United States)
- 1863 – HMS Orpheus sinks off the coast of Auckland, New Zealand, killing 189.
- 1904 – A fire in Baltimore, Maryland destroys over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours.
- 1940 – The second full-length animated Walt Disney film, Pinocchio, premieres.
- 1951 – Korean War: More than 700 suspected communist sympathizers are massacred by South Korean forces.
- 1979 – Pluto moves inside Neptune’s orbit for the first time since either was discovered.
- 1986 – Twenty-eight years of one-family rule end in Haiti, when President Jean-Claude Duvalier flees the Caribbean nation.
- 1991 – Haiti’s first democratically elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, is sworn in.
- 1992 – The Maastricht Treaty is signed, leading to the creation of the European Union.
- 1995 – Ramzi Yousef, the mastermind of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, is arrested in Islamabad, Pakistan.
- 1997 – NeXT merges with Apple Computer, starting the path to Mac OS X.
- 1999 – Crown Prince Abdullah becomes the King of Jordan on the death of his father, King Hussein.
- 2009 – Bushfires in Victoria leave 173 dead in the worst natural disaster in Australia’s history.
- 2012 – President Mohamed Nasheed of the Republic of Maldives resigns, after 23 days of anti-governmental protests calling for the release of Chief Judge unlawfully arrested by the military.
- 2014 – Scientists announce that the Happisburgh footprints in Norfolk, England, date back to more than 800,000 years ago, making them the oldest known hominid footprints outside Africa.
- 1812 – Charles Dickens, English novelist and critic (d. 1870)[
- 1873 – Thomas Andrews, Irish shipbuilder and businessman, designed the RMS Titanic (d. 1912)
- 1906 – Puyi, Chinese emperor (d. 1967)
- 1919 – Desmond Doss, American army corporal and combat medic, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 2006)
- 1934 – Eddie Fenech Adami, Maltese lawyer and politician, 7th President of Malta
- 1934 – King Curtis, American saxophonist and producer (d. 1971)
- 1934 – Earl King, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (d. 2003)
- 1940 – Tony Tan, Singaporean academic and politician, 7th President of Singapore
- 1992 – Sergi Roberto, Spanish footballer
- 1999 – Bea Miller, American singer-songwriter and actress
- 1919 – William Halford, English-American lieutenant, Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1841)
- 1938 – Harvey Samuel Firestone, American businessman, founded the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company (b. 1868)
- 2017 – Richard Hatch, American actor (b. 1945)
- 2017 – Hans Rosling, Swedish academic (b. 1948)
- 2017 – Tzvetan Todorov, Bulgarian philosopher (b. 1939)